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REGENERATION OF MISSING SPECIES
- Reindeer

Reindeer

  • The reindeer (forest subspecies) is an orbicular animal of the Nizhny Novgorod region, listed in the regional Red Data Book in category 0 (the species that has disappeared from the region). The main habitats of the species are swamp margins and pine forests. Large lichen pine forests on sandy soils are the main places of reindeer winter grazing.

    Over the last 300 years, the range of wild forest reindeer has shifted significantly to the north throughout the European part of Russia. In the Nizhny Novgorod region, the range and abundance of the species have been declining rapidly over the last century. In 1902-1907, 50-100 reindeer were preserved on the current territory of Nizhny Novgorod region. The last reindeer were destroyed in the winter of 1917/18 near the northern boundary of the present Sokolskoye district and approximately in the same years at the Kamskoye-Bakaldinskoye bogs (Kharitonychev, 1978).

    The main reason for the decrease in the number of reindeer and their extinction is the overhunting.

    Since 2000, the task of regenerating rare species has been recognized as a priority in the Nizhny Novgorod region's biodiversity conservation action plan and in the development plan of the reserve.

    The territory of the Kerzhensky state nature biosphere reserve is a part of the Kamskoye-Bakkaldinskoye complex of bogs belonging to the wetlands of international importance, where the last Nizhny Novgorod deer lived at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of the study conducted in accordance with paragraph 5.5.7 of the Environmental Action Plan of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Nizhny Novgorod Region supported by the regional budget for 2012 ("Reintroduction of Animal Species Disappeared from the Territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Region (Reindeer)") (Bakka, Denisov, Modina, Zhdanova, Guchev), it is this area that is one of the key places for reintroduction of reindeer in the Nizhny Novgorod region.

    In 2014, the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve started implementing the state task of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation to restore the forest reindeer in the Nizhny Novgorod region.

    In summer 2014, Mamontov, senior researcher of the Laboratory of Protected Natural Areas and Cultural Ecology of the Federal State Budgetary Institution, Institute of Environmental Problems of the North, conducted a survey of the reserve, during which the capacity of the reserve's lands for forest reindeer was assessed and the most optimal place for the construction of adaptation enclosures for young reindeer herding enclosures was identified.

    A demonstration enclosure was installed in the reserve's eco-park and a hangar for fodder storage in summer to form the breeding stock of reindeer in the semi-free habitat. In December 2014, the offspring of forest reindeer born in the Moscow Zoo nursery in 2012 and 2013 were brought to the reserve's territory with a total number of 5 individuals (2 males, 3 females).

    In 2015, an aviary for breeding stock was constructed, located at a sufficient distance from the settlement in the reserve, next to the Chernorechye cordon, consisting of three sections with a total area of 6.5 hectares, and an adaptation aviary, which will serve to form a herd for release into the natural environment, with a total area of 122.4 hectares.

    To form the breeding stock of reindeer, it is planned to purchase reindeer born in the Moscow Zoo nursery and European zoos. Besides, it is planned to capture forest reindeer from wild nature, namely from a group of reindeer in the Arkhangelsk region.

    Surov,

    Project Manager

    of reinstating a forest reindeer

    in Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga region.

    Reintroduction of animal species disappeared from the Nizhny Novgorod Region (reindeer)

    COME BACK, FOREST REINDEER!

    Over the last 300 years, the range of wild forest reindeer has shifted significantly to the north throughout the European part of Russia. In the Nizhny Novgorod region, the range and abundance of the species have been declining rapidly over the last century. In 1902-1907, 50-100 reindeer were preserved on the current territory of Nizhny Novgorod region. The last reindeer were destroyed in the winter of 1917/18 near the northern boundary of the present Sokolskoye district and approximately in the same years at the Kamskoye-Bakaldinskoye bogs (Kharitonychev, 1978).

    The main reason for the decrease in the number of reindeer and their extinction is the overhunting.

    Since 2000, the task of regenerating rare species has been recognized as a priority in the Nizhny Novgorod region's biodiversity conservation action plan and in the development plan of the reserve.

    The territory of the Kerzhensky state nature biosphere reserve is a part of the Kamskoye-Bakkaldinskoye complex of bogs belonging to the wetlands of international importance, where the last Nizhny Novgorod deer lived at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of the study conducted in accordance with paragraph 5.5.7 of the Environmental Action Plan of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Nizhny Novgorod Region supported by the regional budget for 2012 ("Reintroduction of Animal Species Disappeared from the Territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Region (Reindeer)") (Bakka, Denisov, Modina, Zhdanova, Guchev), it is this area that is one of the key places for reintroduction of reindeer in the Nizhny Novgorod region.

    On January 27, 2013 in the Environmental Centre of the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve in Rustai there was a discussion on the possibility of reinstating the reindeer with the Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation Donskoy and Deputy Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation Lebedev.

    In April 2013, at the meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Kerzhensky Reserve, the program of reinstatement of the forest reindeer on the territory of the Kerzhensky Reserve under the leadership of the first director of the Kerzhensky Reserve Korshunova was approved.

    In 2014, the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve started implementing the state task of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation to restore the forest reindeer in the Nizhny Novgorod region.

    GOALS, TASKS, REGIME, AND REGULATION OF REINDEER HUSBANDRY

    1. THE MAIN GOALS

    The main purpose of the work on the maintenance and breeding of forest reindeer in semi-free conditions and artificially created habitat in the territory of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Kerzhensky State Nature Biosphere Reserve" in the Nizhny Novgorod region:

    1.1. PRESERVATION OF THE GENE POOL OF WILD FOREST REINDEER IN RUSSIA

    1.2. FOREST REINDEER REINSTATEMENT IN THE NIZHNY NOVGOROD REGION.

    Maintenance of forest reindeer in semi-free conditions and artificially created habitat in the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Kerzhensky State Natural Biosphere Reserve" is a special form of their protection and preservation of the gene pool.

    All works on maintenance and breeding of forest reindeer in semi-free conditions and artificially created habitat in the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Kerzhensky State Natural Biosphere Reserve" are carried out at the expense of subsidies from the Federal budget.

    Animals kept and offspring received from them are on the balance sheet of FSBI "Kerzhensky State Natural Biosphere Reserve".

    2. the tasks

    In order to achieve the goals set, the following tasks should be performed:

    2.1. formation of the parent stock of the breeder species to be kept in captivity and in semi-free conditions;

    2.2. Organization of conditions for the semi-free keeping or captivity of the parent stock of the species being kept;

    2.3. Organization of scientifically grounded feeding providing parent stock and young animals with all necessary nutrients;

    2.4. Organization of breeding of parent stock providing the most complete realization of the potential reproductive potential of the species (subspecies);

    2.5. Carrying out necessary sanitary, veterinary, preventive, and therapeutic measures;

    2.6. Creation of special breeding regimes for young animals intended for release into nature providing opportunities for independent existence and further reproduction of released animals in natural conditions;

    2.7. Involvement of research organizations, institutions, subdivisions into improvement of existing technologies of keeping and development of new ones, feeding, captive breeding of animals (semi-free conditions), reintroduction into the nature of grown animals on the basis of targeted research;

    2.8. Creation of necessary conditions for carrying out scientific-research works and all-round assistance in implementation of planned joint programs;

    2.9. Introduction of developments of research organizations conducting research on the basis of the reserve;

    2.10. Participation in the organization of census of the number of species of animals bred in the lands in the Nizhny Novgorod region, in monitoring their distribution, population structure, migration, paying special attention to the places of reintroduction of raised animals;

    2.11. Carrying out educational and scientific-educational work in the field of nature protection, conservation, and sustainable use of wildlife, and environmental education of the population.

    The reserve carries out its activity on restoration of the forest reindeer in accordance with the long-term program of research and production works developed jointly with research organizations.

    3. REGIME AND REGULATIONS OF WORKS

    3.1. WORK ON THE MAINTENANCE OF FOREST REINDEER IN SEMI-FREE CONDITIONS AND ARTIFICIALLY CREATED HABITAT IN THE STATE NATURAL BIOSPHERE RESERVE" KERZHENSKY FSBI IS CARRIED OUT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL AND VETERINARY LEGISLATION, SANITARY AND VETERINARY REGULATIONS, AND SAFETY REGULATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND NIZHNY NOVGOROD REGION.

    MAIN STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM ON REINSTATEMENT OF FOREST REINDEER IN THE TERRITORY OF THE KERZHENSKY RESERVE

    In the summer of 2014, a senior researcher of the Laboratory of Protected Natural Areas and Cultural Ecology of the FGBU Institute of Environmental Problems of the North Mamontov conducted a survey of the reserve during which the capacity of the reserve's lands for forest reindeer was assessed, and the most optimal place for the construction of an adaptation enclosure for young reindeer was found.

    In order to form the breeding stock of reindeer in the semi-free habitat, a demonstration enclosure and a hangar were installed in the reserve's ecopark in the summer of 2014. In December 2014, the offspring of forest reindeer born in the Moscow Zoo nursery in 2012 and 2013 were brought to the reserve with the total number of 5 individuals (2 males, 3 females). However, during transportation one young female damaged her leg. After prolonged treatment, the female reindeer were released to the other reindeer on 2 July 2016, but the reindeer died of severe stress during a limb examination on 13 July.

    In 2015, the fencing was installed in the reserve to keep the breeding stock, which is located at a sufficient distance from the settlement on the Chernorechye cordon and consists of three compartments with a total area of 6.5 ha. Currently, one young female has been transferred to this enclosure.

    Also, on the territory of the reserve there is an adaptation enclosure with the total area of 122.4 ha, which will serve to form a herd to be released into the natural environment.

    NUMBER OF PEOPLE INVOLVED IN REINDEER HUSBANDRY

    At present, there are three reindeer care workers, plus the reindeer are monitored by a veterinarian. All these works are carried out under contract.

    Transportation of reindeer and works related to fodder collection, staff transfer to the Chernorechye cordon, assistance in creating infrastructure for reindeer (clearing of enclosures, clearing of ponds) are carried out with the involvement of the reserve's security and transport staff.

    • To provide veterinary assistance, employees of the State Lighting Department of Bor, leading veterinary specialists and veterinarians of the Moscow Zoo are involved
    • To create the infrastructure, the organizations that won the tender for these works, as well as individuals under the construction contracts, were involved
    • Research and environmental education works, including photo and video shooting of reindeer, are carried out by the reserve's staff, as well as by third parties

    VETERINARY CARE

    • Daily in the demonstration enclosure and every second day in the enclosure at the Chernorechye cordon, the feeding trough is cleaned of food and manure residues
    • 2 times a year (in spring and autumn), complete disinfection of the fodder rooms is carried out
    • Blood and manure analysis of reindeer for diseases and general physiological condition control is carried out (Nizhny Novgorod veterinary laboratory)

    THE MAIN STAGES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES IN REINDEER IN 2015 AND EARLY 2016

    • Reset of horns: on 05 March - Zakhar and Lyusya (current year), on 13 March - Zhanna (current year), on 14 March - one Lena horn (1.5 years), on 25 March - the second horn of Lena, both horns of Ignat (1.5 years)
    • Growth of horns is observed immediately after the drop, the beginning of intensive growth (1 cm per day) is the 12th of April, by August growth slowed down
    • Shedding lasted from 16 April to 22 July
    • Antler-rubbing (because the horns were completely stiffened) was on September 01 with Ignat (the eldest male), on September 13 with Zahar, started with Lena (the eldest female), and on October 12 with Lucy
    • Beginning of the rut is on September 17, on September 21 it was activated, the same day the youngest female was transferred to a separate enclosure in Chernorechye, and by the end of November the rut fades (one mount on the female of Ignat was noted)
    • Reset of horns of the eldest male Ignat was on February 2, 2016

    FUTURE PLANS

    To form the breeding stock of reindeer and the stock to be released into the wild, it is planned to purchase the born reindeer in the Moscow Zoo nursery. Besides, it is planned to capture forest reindeer from wild nature, from the group of reindeer in the Arkhangelsk region.

    rd1.jpg

    Reindeer distribution in European Russia according to the report on "Reintroduction of Animal Species Disappeared in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Reindeer)" (Bakka, Kiselyova, Denisov, Modina, Zhdanova, Guchev)


    DYNAMICS OF REDUCTION OF THE RANGE AND NUMBER OF REINDEER IN THE NIZHNY NOVGOROD REGION IN THE XV-XX CENTURIES 

    rd2.jpg

    Figure 1: Distribution of forest reindeer in the Nizhny Novgorod region (15th-16th centuries) Report on "Reintroduction of Animal Species Disappeared in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Reindeer)" (Bakka, Kiselyova, Denisov, Modina, Zhdanova, Guchev)


    rd3.jpg

    Figure 2: Forest reindeer distribution in the Nizhny Novgorod region (early 19th century)


    rd4.jpg


    Figure 3: Forest reindeer distribution in the Nizhny Novgorod region (1875-1890)


    rd5.jpg

    Figure 4: Forest reindeer distribution in the Nizhny Novgorod Region (1902-1907)

    Ecocenter and Directorate
    In Nizhniy Novgorod

    603001, Nizhny Novgorod,

    st. Rozhdestvenskaya, d. 23,
    Reserve "Kerzhensky"

    work time: 9: 30-17: 30
    Mon-Fri.,
    Closed Sat.- Sun.

    (831) 431-30-56, 431-31-91

    kerzhenskiy@kerzhenskiy.ru

    Parent Organization –
    Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia

    Ecocenter
    in the village Rustay

    606491, Nizhny Novgorod region.,

    pos. Rustay GO Bor
    st. Oktyabrskaya, d.17

    in the summer every day 9: 00-17: 00,
    winter 10: 00-15: 00
    Mon-Fri.,
    Sat-Sun - in advance. applications.

    Scientific Department:
    (83159) 3-92-32
    Accounting:
    (83159) 3-92-30
    Environmental education
    +79200772831

    The base of protection
    in the village Rustay

    606491, Nizhny Novgorod region.,

    pos. Rustay GO Bor
    st. Yubileinaya, d. 7

    Report emergency:
    +7 930 80 89 271
       (round the clock)

    (83159) 3-91-96