The traditional handicrafts of local people
A forest plot leased by Lesnoy Forestry Complex in Bor District after selective felling
Processing of woodworking waste into technological chips, Varnavino District
The traditional handicrafts of local people
The traditional handicrafts of local people
The Nizhny Novgorod Zavolzhye Biosphere Reserve is the first biosphere reserve in the Volga Federal District that was granted its status at the end of 2002 by the decision of the Secretariat of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme.
Biosphere Reserve is a natural area recognized at the international level as part of the activities of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in order to address issues of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. The reserve includes three functional zones: core zone, buffer zone, and cooperation zone.
The Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga Biosphere Reserve is located in the Middle Volga region in the basins of the Vetluga and Kerzhenets Rivers (left tributaries of the Volga River). The biosphere reserve includes the Krasnyye Baki, Voskresenskoye, Varnavino, Vorotynets, and Lyskovo municipal districts, Semyonov and Bor urban districts. In the reserve there are specially protected natural areas: the Kerzhensky Reserve, its protected area, the Voskresenskoe Povetluzhye Nature Park, the Kilemarsky and Varnavinsky state reserves, and 20 natural monuments. The coordination of joint actions for the development of the biosphere reserve is currently carried out by the Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve.
The reserve is particularly valuable for its undisturbed sphagnum bog complexes and areas of old-age pine and broadleaved spruce forests.
In 2002, the Secretariat of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme confirmed the Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga Biosphere Reserve, which includes the Kerzhensky State Reserve
Biosphere Reserve is a natural area within the boundaries of the related land and water bodies recognized at the international level as part of the activities of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in order to address issues of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of its elements.
A network of biosphere reserves is being established to address one of the most important issues facing the world today: how to reconcile biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of biological resources? Scientists in the field of natural and social sciences, groups of specialists in nature protection and development, administrative bodies and local population work together to create conditions for harmonious interaction between man and nature in biosphere reserves.
As of 2015, the International Network of Biosphere Reserves includes 651 territories located in 120 countries. According to the Federal Law "On Specially Protected Natural Areas" (1995), the status of biosphere reserves has state natural reserves which are part of the international system of biosphere reserves. The system of biosphere reserves also includes other categories of specially protected areas, such as national parks and natural parks. As of 2015, there were 44 biosphere reserves in the Russian Federation, including 35 state nature reserves, 7 national parks, and 2 natural parks.
Each biosphere reserve remains under the sovereign jurisdiction of the state in which it is located. The activities of BRs are guided by international instruments such as the Seville Strategy for BRs, and the Statutory Framework of the World Network of BRs (1995), and the Madrid Action Plan for BRs (2008-2013). Biosphere Reserves Action Plan 2016-2025 is adopted at the World Congress of Biosphere Reserves in March 2016, Lima, Peru.
In accordance with the Seville Strategy, biosphere reserves have three complementary functions:
a protection function for the conservation of genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and landscapes;
a development function for contribution to sustainable socio-economic development;
a scientific and technical function to support demonstration projects, environmental education and training, research and monitoring of local, national, and global activities carried out for the purpose of protection of the environment and sustainable development.
The following functional zones are allocated within the biosphere reserve:
the core zone designed for long-term preservation of biological diversity, where activities ensuring the preservation of natural complexes and objects are allowed;
the buffer zone adjacent to the core zone, designed to prevent adverse anthropogenic impacts on the core zone of the biosphere reserve and the implementation of environmentally safe activities;
the cooperation zone designed for implementation of special projects and programs on sustainable use and reproduction of natural resources, development of environmental education, and formation of environmental culture on the basis of cooperation between organizations managing specially protected areas within biosphere reserves, interested executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local authorities, commercial and non-commercial organizations, citizens, and their associations.
The Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga Biosphere Reserve is the first biosphere reserve in the Volga Federal District that was granted its status at the end of 2002 by the decision of the Secretariat of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga Biosphere Reserve is located in the Middle Volga region in the basins of the Vetluga and Kerzhenets rivers (left tributaries of the Volga River), in the Voskresenskoye, Varna vino, and Lyskovo municipal districts, Semyonov and Bor urban districts, and partially in the Lyskovo and Vorotynets districts of the Nizhny Novgorod region. As of May 2016, the total area of the reserve was 1,381,139 ha. The reserve is particularly valuable for its undisturbed sphagnum bog complexes and areas of old-growth pine and broadleaved spruce forests.
The Biosphere Reserve operates under Cooperation Agreements between the Kerzhensky State Biosphere Reserve and the Administrations of the Semyonov and Bor Urban Districts, Krasnyye Baki, Voskresenskoye, and Varnavino Municipal Districts. Certain cooperation agreements were signed with the Administrations of the Vladimir and Staroustye Village Councils of the Voskresenskoye Municipal District, the Voskresenskoye Povetluzhye Nature Park, LLC Lesnoye Industrial Complex, LLC Grey Horse Tribal Factory. The biosphere reserve includes specially protected natural areas: the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve, its protection zone, the Voskresenskoye Povetluzhye Nature Park, the Kilemarsky and Varnavinsky state wildlife sanctuaries, and 20 natural monuments. The biosphere reserve includes wetlands of international importance (Ramsar Convention) and key bird areas. The coordination of cooperative actions for the development of the biosphere reserve is currently carried out by the Kerzhensky State Nature Reserve.
The core zone of the biosphere reserve with the area of 30957 hectares includes most of the territory of the Kerzhensky Reserve, where 88 species of animals, 23 species of vascular plants, 13 species of mosses, 2 species of algae, 13 species of lichens, and 12 species of mushrooms listed in the federal and regional Red Data Books are protected. Any economic activity is prohibited in the core zone, and the main task is to protect natural complexes from human impact.
The buffer zone of the biosphere reserve with the area of 26489 hectares includes the protected zone of the Kerzhensky reserve (10660 hectares) with two natural monuments and the area of limited economic use of the Kerzhensky reserve (15829 hectares). In the buffer zone, the most destructive types of activities are prohibited, such as hydro-melioration works, constructing industrial and other objects, use of toxic substances, etc., and environmentally friendly nature use is allowed. Currently, work is being carried out to set up a buffer zone along the entire perimeter of the biosphere reserve core.
The cooperation zone of the biosphere reserve with an area of 1,323,693 hectares includes the territories of Voskresenskoye and Varnavino municipal districts, Semyonov and Bor urban districts, and partially the territories of Lyskovo and Vorotynets municipal districts. In this zone there are such specially protected natural areas as the Voskresenskoe Povetluzhye Nature Park, the Kilemarsky and Varnavinsky Complex Reserves, and 18 natural monuments. The main task of the zone of cooperation is the harmonization of relations between people and wildlife, building an effective model of sustainable use of natural resources necessary for the development of the region. Work is under way to include other areas of the Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga region, primarily the Lyskovo, Krasnyye Baki, and Vorotynets districts, in the cooperation zone.
Examples of cooperation with partner organizations in the cooperation zone of the Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga Biosphere Reserve.
In 2014, at the initiative of the Kerzhensky Reserve and the Dront Ecological Centre regional public organization, a working group was established to promote the sustainable development of the Nizhny Novgorod Trans-Volga Biosphere Reserve. As part of the Working Group's activities, the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve signed Cooperation Agreements with organizations that manage the biosphere reserve's environmental management, including LLC Forestry Complex Lesnoy and LLC Grey Horse Tribal Farm. The managers of these enterprises are included in the Working Group. In cooperation with the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve and the Voskresenskoye Povetluzhye Nature Park, projects are underway to introduce sustainable nature management technologies. In May 2016, the Vetluga River Basin Association, an interregional public organization, joined the development of the biosphere reserve.
In Bor district, the partner of the reserve in the work of the biosphere reserve to optimize the use of natural resources is a lessee of a forest plot in Zatonsky forestry LLC Forestry Enterprise Lesnoy, which has been using resource-saving technologies in forest management for 18 years. Since 1989, in cooperation with the forestry department, the Company has been developing logging sites using the strip-and-path method, which allows for a smooth transition from mature to young coniferous forest by preserving young growth. In 1998, the company leased 4.5 thousand hectares of the state forest fund with almost a full range of harvesting and forestry operations. It is planned to replace the clearcuts by 50% with gradual ones. In agreement with the Forestry Agency, it is planned to allocate small protected areas for the purpose of natural growth of young trees with the establishment of test areas.
In Voskresenskoye district, the Grey Horse breeding plant was established by the spouses Alexander Pirogov and Tatiana Pirogova in 2007. In their farm there are more than 80 horses, mainly of the Orlov Trotter and Tersk breeds. The core of Pirogovs' business is environmental tourism, which includes active recreation programs of various forms: weekend tours, corporate trips, weekly horse and kayak hiking programs, and long rural tours. The Noah's Ark Fauna Park has been established in the Pirogovs' farm: the park is home to 17 species of pigeon and other poultry species, and special aviaries for spotted, noble, and northern deer, fallow deer, and elk have been set up for rent on 1,600 hectares. Within the framework of the cooperation agreement with the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve and the Voskresensky Povetluzhye Nature Park, the Grey Horse breeding plant is planning to further develop environmental tourism in the cooperation zone of the biosphere reserve.